In December 2013, Martti Koskenniemi, a professor of international law at the University of Helsinki, warned that the draft foreign investor protection program under the treaty, similar to the World Bank Group`s International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), would jeopardize the sovereignty of signatory states by imposing on a small number of legal experts sitting in a foreign arbitral tribunal the power of interpretation and unprecedented non-taxation. the legislation of the signatory States.  In October 2018, the two trading partners announced their intention to work towards a free trade agreement, although these have not yet been put in place amid ongoing political and trade issues. The areas of negotiation could be too difficult and the attempt to do so on a large scale could accentuate the differences, Mr. Ikenson, especially since the European Commission has publicly expressed concerns about the controversy of the negotiations. Despite a study by the Ifo Institute for Economic Research in Munich (on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs) on which TTIP could create up to 400,000 jobs in the EU, Stefan Körzell, Federal Director of the German Trade Union Confederation (DGB), said: “The question of whether TTIP can create jobs and `how much` and `where` is unclear. The studies carried out so far, which range from those of the European Commission to the expertise of the ifo Institute, oscillate between optimism and very low expectations. Consideration of the negative consequences that trade agreements can have if environmental or labour standards are ignored is often omitted. As of August 2015, the United States had ratified two (prohibitions on child labor and slavery) of the ILO`s eight core labor standards.
 Biden`s desire to tackle climate change could be a way to negotiate with the EU, especially after Trump`s US withdrawal. of the Paris agreement on climate change, said Uri Dadush, a non-resident scientist at the Brussels think tank Bruegel, sponsored by EU member states and companies. A draft TTIP section on sustainable development was forwarded to The Guardian in October 2015. Asked about a comment on the document, a French environmental lawyer described the proposed environmental protection measures as “virtually non-existent” compared to investor protection and that environmental cases accounted for 60% of the 127 ISDS cases already opened against EU countries over the past two decades under bilateral trade agreements, according to Friends of the Earth Europe.  According to Joseph E. Stiglitz, TTIP could have a “deterrent” effect on regulation, thereby undermining “the urgent climate change measures required by the Paris Agreement.” . . .